I am

Naiara Abaroa


Naiara Abaroa

UI designer/CSS lover at WiMi5

@nabaroa naknak.me

Touch the future
play with it

Are you a pioneer?

You'll enjoy ;)

1 Grid layout

Grid Terminology

Grid Lines
Grid Track
Grid Cell
Grid Area

The specification is really flexible regarding how to place items on the grid.

Choose your favourite way

Example in use

Grid lines

The grid lines are the ones dividing horizontally and vertically a grid. And they’re actually numbered, starting at 1.

Numbered grid lines example

    display: grid; 
    grid-template-columns: 300px 200px 100px; 
    grid-template-rows: 100px 50px;

Grid placement properties

Shorthand for grid-column-start and grid-column-end properties.
Shorthand for grid-row-start and grid-row-end properties.
Shorthand to set the 4 placement properties in just one declaration.
Place item using line numbers example

The long way:

    grid-column-start: 2; 
    grid-column-end: 4;
    grid-row-start: 1;
    grid-row-end 2;

Easier with shorthands:

    grid-column: 2 / 4; 
    grid-row: 1 / 2; 

Cell spanning

The same position using span.

Place item using span example

    grid-column: 2 / span 2; 
    grid-row: 1;

Negative line numbers

Negative numbers allow you to reference the lines starting from the end of the grid. It's like a reverse.

Place item using negative line numbers example

Useful if you want to be sure that the item is in the last column, independently of the number of tracks, you’ll just need to set: grid-column-end: -1;

Named grid lines

You can name the grid lines, so you don’t need to remember the specific number to reference to them.

Place item using line names example

    display: grid;
    grid-template-columns: [start] 300px [main] 200px [aside] 100px [end];
    grid-template-rows: [top] 100px [middle] 50px [bottom];

One line can have several names, you just need to set them in the definition:

    grid-template-rows: [top start] 100px [middle center] 50px [bottom end];

The names of the lines can be repeated. To reference them you’ve to use a number that can be again positive or negative.

Place items with repeated named grid lines example

  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: [col] 200px [gap] 50px 
  [col] 200px [gap] 50px [col] 200px [gap];
.item1{ grid-column: col 2;}
.item2{ grid-column: col 1 / gap 2;}
.item3{ grid-column: col -1;}

And of course, you can span to a named grid line.

Place item spanning to named grid line example

    grid-column: col 2 / span 2 gap;

Grid areas

You can define grid areas and place items directly on them. You have to use the grid-template-areas property to put names to the different areas in your grid. And you could use the grid-area shorthand directly to place the items.

Place items inside grid areas example

    display: grid;
    grid-template-columns: 100px 100px 100px 100px 100px;
    grid-template-rows: 100px 100px 100px 100px;
    'title title title title aside'
    'nav main main main aside'
    'nav main main main aside'
    'footer footer footer footer footer';

.item1{grid-area: title;}
.item2{grid-area: nav;}
.item3{grid-area: main;}
.item4{grid-area: aside;}
.item5{grid-area: footer;}

Implicit names

Grid areas create implicit names for the grid lines surrounding them. These implicit names use the “-start” and “-end” suffixes.

E.g. the “title” area creates 4 implicit names for the lines (2 in each axis):

  • Left line: “title-start”
  • Right line: “title-end”
  • Top line: “title-start”
  • Bottom line: “title-end”

And you can reference those lines when placing an item, instead of using the whole area.

Place items inside grid areas example Place item using implicit names from grid areas example

Implicit grid

It's possible to place items outside of the explicit grid, creating implicit tracks automatically. The size of these tracks is controlled by grid-auto-columns and grid-auto-rows properties.

Implicit grid example

    display: grid;
    grid-template-columns: 200px 200px;
    grid-auto-columns: 100px;

A coupe of examples:

    display: grid;
    grid-template-columns: 200px 200px;
    grid-auto-columns: 100px;

    grid-column:2 / span 3;
Implicit grid with span example

Implicit grid before explicit example

the fr Unit

The new kid on the block

The fr unit can be used for grid-rows and grid-columns values. It stands for "fraction of available space". Think of it as percentages for available space when you've taken off fixed-sized and content-based columns/rows. As the spec says:

The distribution of fractional space occurs after all 'length' or content-based row and column sizes have reached their maximum.

The repeat() function

It allows you to define a pattern repeated X times.

Let's say you want to do 12 equal-width columns spaced from each other by a 1% margin:

grid-template-column:1fr repeat(11, 1% 1fr);

It is the same as:

grid-template-column:1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr 1% 1fr;

Can Iuse?

Enable CSS Grid Layout

Chrome logo


Enable the flag called Enable experimental Web Platform features going to:

Firefox logo


Enable the flag called layout.css.grid.enabled going to:

Internet Explorer logo


Enabled by default since IE10 (old syntax).

Prefixed -ms

Opera logo


Enable the flag called Enable experimental Web Platform features going to:

WebKit logo


Enabled by default in WebKit Nightly Builds.

Prefixed -webkit

Check the CSS Grid Layout polyfill by François Remy.


2 Custom properties




Cascade on custom properties

If a custom property is declared multiple times, the standard cascade rules help resolve it

    :root { --color: yellow; }
    div { --color: pink; }
    #alert { --color: blue; }
    * { color: var(--color); }


I inherited blue from the root element!

I got green set directly on me!
While I got red set directly on me!

I’m red too, because of inheritance!

Can I use?

But we can use the sintaxis today


CSS extensions

W3C Editor's Draft

Custom selectors

W3C Editor's Draft


@custom-selector :--heading h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6;

:--heading { /* styles for all headings */ }
:--heading + p { /* more styles */ }
/* etc */

But this is the future



@apply rule

:root {
  --toolbar-theme: {
    background-color: hsl(120, 70%, 95%);
    border-radius: 4px;
    border: 1px solid var(--theme-color late);
  --toolbar-title-theme: {
    color: green;

.toolbar {
  @apply --toolbar-theme;
.toolbar > .title {
  @apply --toolbar-title-theme;

4 PostCSS

Is Sass dead?

A tool for transforming CSS with JavaScript

Based on plugins

Build you own environment

Currently, PostCSS has more than 200 plugins

Great Plugins


Add vendor prefixes to CSS rules using values from Can I Use.

:fullscreen {

:-webkit-:full-screen {
:-moz-:full-screen {
:full-screen {


Use the latest CSS syntax today with cssnext

:root { 
    --red: #d33;
a { 
    &:hover {
        color: color(var(--red) a(54%));

a:hover { 
    color: #dd3333;
    color: rgba(221, 51, 51, 0.54);

CSS Modules

Work CSS like independent components

.name {
    color: gray;

.Logo__name__SVK0g {
    color: gray;

From Sass to PostCSS

Try it

It's possible

Sass postCSS

They can live together

What did I use?


 I'm ready for your